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London – maturitní otázka
London is a capital of the United Kingdom. It is the 9th largest city in the world and population is about 10 million (with suburbs). London is situated on the river Thames in south-east England. In 1st century it was founded as a centre of Roman province Britain. After 1066 it became a capital of England. The great fire in 1666 destroyed almost all the city because the houses was made of wood but it ended the great plaque which troubled people at that time in London. Then the houses were built of rock.
Generaly there are four main parts in London. The City of London, The city of Westminster, The West End and the East End.
The City of London is the oldest part however it is the smaller one. It is a business, financial and economical centre. Many people work there but nearly no one live there. There are a lot of banks (Bank of England), government offices and also well known London Stock Exchange.
The city of Westminster is full of time-honoured monuments. There are the most places of interest as Westminster Abbey, Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace or Trafalgar Square (where Nelson’s Column is).
The West End is the shopping and entertainment centre with many shops, theatres, cinemas and clubs.
The East End used to be a poor dockland area but it has been changing. Nowadays it is rapidly developing area. Everyone is moving there now. It is full of yuppies and luxury cars. Yuppies are young people with high incomes and fashionable lifestyles.
There are many places of interest. We can see them by walking or by various means of transport. London’s famous red double-deckers go almost everywhere. For fast transport between the histrorical monuments we can go by the TUBE. It is the oldest underground in the world. Very famous but a little more expensive way of transport are typical black cabs. Other possibilities how to get around the London could be a train or a river bus on the Thames river.
There are also 3 airports in London. The most important are Heathrow and Gatwick.
Places of interest:
The Houses of Parliament was originally built in gothic style but were rebuilt in the Neo- gothic style after burned down in 1834. The well-known famous part is clock tower Big Ben.
Whitehall is the street where the government offices are.
Downing Street 10 is the official home of British Prime Minister (nowadays David Cameron).
Westminster Abbey was founded in the 11th century. Britain’s Kings and Queens are crowned here. It is place where many state occasions and royal weddings take place.
St. Paul’s Cathedral is one of the largest cathedrals in the world. It stands in the City of London. This great renaissance dome is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren and it was built in the 17th century. Prince Charles and Lady Diana were married here.
The Tower of London was built in the 11th century. It served as the prison. Nowadays there is a museum. The Crown Jewels are kept there and highly guarded by the Beefeaters (traditionally uniformed soldiers).
Tower Bridge is one of the typical symbols of London. It was built only in the last century. It can open in the middle and let large ships go through.
Trafalgar Square was named after Admiral Nelson’s victory over Napoleon at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson’s statue is situated on a high column. The square with its fountains is a very popular place for various meetings and demonstrations.
Buckingham Palace is the official Queen’s residence in London. One of the biggest London’s parades is Changing the Guards here.
Piccadilly Circus, Regent Street, Oxford Street are the most famous shopping centres.
There are many parks in London, e.g. Green Park, Regent’s Park, St. James’s Park. The largest of them is Hyde Park. It is also known for its Speaker’s Corner where anybody can have a speech.
constructions of the Millennium:
Millenium Dome, Millenium Bridge (only for food), London Eye